Frequently Asked Questions About Becoming a Private Investigator

How do I become a private investigator?

That’s a complicated question with several parts that largely depend upon in which state you plan on working. You have two options; you either work for a licensed private investigations agency or you go to work for yourself and obtain your own PI company license. Either way, you there are two considerations you must address at some point:

The first consideration is licensing; all but only a handful of states require a state-issued license to be a private investigator. Each state has different background, education and experience requirements that may vary from simply attending a state-approved training course to pre-licensing education, exams, years of work experience and obtaining a sizable professional liability insurance policy with “errors and omissions” coverage. To make matters just a little more confusing, there are some cities that require private investigators to either register or obtain a municipal license in states that do not otherwise require them.

The second consideration is training. Private investigation specific training is the most important investment you can make in yourself! Since most new PIs don’t have the ability or are not ready to start up their own investigations company you will most likely be looking for employment with an established agency. As an owner of an established and well respected detective agency I get resumes all of the time; the first thing I look for before considering a candidate is to ask the question, “How has this person invested in themselves before asking me to invest in them?”

What if I do not have the minimum experience required by the state to obtain my own company license? How will I ever break into the industry?

If your goal is to eventually own your private investigations agency, no problem… every state that requires experience also has a program in place to see that new investigators have access to eventually obtaining their own license. For example, in Texas where we hold an agency license those who are too new simply go to work for an established company until they have the required number of hours to be able apply for their own license. In Florida (where we also have an agency license) they specifically provide internship licenses. Again, every state is a little bit different but thousands of successful private investigators are working today and tens of thousands have come before us; we all had to get started someplace… you can too.

Also, consider your own background and employment related experience carefully some of it may apply. I have known loss prevention agents, security guards (in specific roles), accountants, firemen, bail bondsmen, alarm installers, teachers, and even a librarian use their previous employment experiences to apply for their own agency license.

What type of training should I be looking into?

Any amount of training is great though most PI companies don’t place a whole lot of credibility with the courses from PCDI, Harcourt, and Thompson Direct. You could honestly do much better and at less cost.

Instead, look for academies or training programs that have been created by private investigators. Who knows better about what a new or an aspiring private detective needs to know than an investigator who has been in the field for a considerable amount of time?

Also… look to see that the sponsoring company is active in the industry as well. Are they still providing regular private investigative services to a robust clientele? It’s sad, but many PIs who wash out over a very short period of time in the business look to teaching. In reality, you will learn very little from those who could not make it themselves; success breeds success!

Lastly, I have a little secret I would like to share with you…

Look over the education provider’s entire website and see if you find boastful claims or where the company is bashing other educators. This is a very tight-knit industry and you will find that students who complete training programs from educators that spend time “bad mouthing the competition” have a terrible time getting a break simply because of the animosity created through their educator’s use of negative advertising. I know that seems unfair but it is a reality in this business. This does not mean, however, that you should dismiss the negative press but the first thing an excellent private investigator learns is how to evaluate a claim, identify the source and make a judgment based on additional facts and research. Some statements will have merit while others will not; it’s up to you to make that decision.

What is the difference between a private investigator and a private detective?

Nothing. The terms are used interchangeably but some states choose to use the term “detective” while most use the term “investigator.”

I really just want to help my friends and family to find old friends or people who owe them money. Do I need a PI license?

That’s a great question. Generally speaking, in those states where it is a requirement you will need to obtain a license if you hold yourself out for hire or accept payment from another person or business and participate in or provide the following services:

o Surveillance

o Obtaining or furnish information related to a crime or the identity, habits, business, occupation, knowledge, movement, location, affiliations, associations,transactions, acts, reputation, or character of a person, group or company.

o Securing evidence for use before a court, board, officer, or committee

o Locating or recovering lost or stolen property and unclaimed funds.

o Determining the cause or responsibility for a fire, libel, loss, accident, damage, or injury to a person or to property.

Some states may specifically include such things as service of process, bail enforcement, personal protection and genealogical research under those activities that require a private investigator’s license as well.

Do I have to have a degree in Criminal Justice from a college or university?

No, though some states may accept a degree in Criminal Justice, Administration of Justice or Police Sciences in lieu of the minimum experience requirements. One recent study conducted on behalf of the Virginia Department of Justice concluded that almost 57% of all private investigators do not have a college education.

If I do not have a college education do I have to have a background as a police officer or other law enforcement related profession?

No. Most private investigators do not have a law enforcement background before entering into this industry. It is true that many private investigators may have once had a career in criminal justice but the bottom-line is that private investigation and law enforcement is very different and my experience has been that very few who make the transition from law enforcement are prepared for this type of work, either technically or creatively, on their own. Most of them recognize this and seek industry specific training as well.

What type of person makes a successful private investigator?

This business requires a rare blend of logic and creativity; it’s rare because logical people tend to not be very creative and vice-versa.

I would say that any successful detective must first have the ability to communicate. This means that he or she must have the ability to connect with people of all walks of life, regardless of economic status, ethnicity or education. It also means that the investigator must have the ability to clearly present a simple fact or a complex investigation in writing. The end result of an investigation is the investigative report, which is given to the client upon conclusion of the assignment; this is essentially our work product. If you cannot write reasonably well, your reputation will surely suffer as a result.

Secondly, great investigators have a burning desire to answer any question that is put to them only after a careful and determined effort to identify the facts and circumstances that contribute to a complete and unbiased explanation. We are in the business to provide facts, not opinions; we let our clients draw their own conclusions from our report. Oftentimes in order to get to those facts, we must be relentless in our pursuit of information. This is where logic meets creativity. Dead-ends often only require a different approach!

Lastly, I believe that every investigator should possess a varied set of experiences and knowledge. One characterization of the private detective industry I can make is that by and large we represent a vastness of experience, skills, and trades. One of the most accomplished investigators I have ever met listed “Mom” on her resume. When she decided to become a private investigator she had no appreciable skills that she could put in her resume but through her own experiences she had developed an intuition that was almost never wrong and she could simplify complex problems into there most basic parts. I have personally hired a plumber, building contractor, car salesman, and a host of other seemingly unrelated career types into my own company, CompassPoint Investigations, because they had certain intangibles that made them great in this business!

The bottom line is that anyone can train to become a wildly successful private investigator, just like one can train to become a barber or an attorney, but an aspiring detective has to bring some things to the table that cannot be easily taught: creativity, logic, the ability to communicate and an insatiable curiosity!

I have a criminal conviction in my background from many years ago. Will this affect my ability to become a private eye?

Every state that requires a license to be a PI also requires a background investigation as a part of the licensing process. I believe that a felony conviction will be an automatic disqualification in almost every instance (though I know a felon who has a PI license issued by the city of Columbus, MO.), while misdemeanors may be considered depending upon the crime, its seriousness and the amount of time that has passed since the conviction; again this will vary by state.

Will my military discharge affect my ability to become a private investigator?

In some cases a discharge that is anything but honorable may prevent you from becoming a PI. Just as in the answer to the criminal conviction history above, some states require PI applicants be free from negative military discharge classifications- Bad Conduct Discharge, Less than Honorable or Other Than Honorable service characterizations are grounds for denial of a PI license in several states and jurisdictions.

Perhaps the Florida Division of Licensing put it best: “Private investigators and private investigative agencies serve in positions of trust. Untrained and unlicensed persons or businesses, or persons not of good moral character, are a threat to the public safety and welfare. The private investigative industry is regulated to ensure the interests of the public are adequately served and protected.”

Can I just specialize in a particular type of investigation or will I have to do the surveillances and cheating spouse investigations too?

I absolutely recommend that investigators find their niche and specialize in only a few types of investigations! There are several important reasons for this, which I discuss in my training programs, but it can be summed up this way: when you are the most notable investigator in your region of the country for a specific type of investigation, you will find MANY additional opportunities to make a lot more money than if you advertise yourself as a “jack of all trades.” This has been proven across the country time and time again and is a major topic of discussion in our upcoming private investigation marketing manual.

What types of assignments do private investigators typically take?

Wow, the options are endless and the subject really deserves its own entire section! I have listed the most obvious types of private investigator assignments in an article you can find by going to my Articles Page. I will eventually briefly describe each type of investigation in the next couple of weeks. Continue to check in as we are constantly making additions.

What type of investigation or specialty assignment pays the most?

I don’t know that anyone can answer that question definitively, but I will say that surveillance is typically the most lucrative type of assignment a private investigator can get because it is solid, billable, blocks of time. I am aware that there are particular types of investigations where investigators are making anywhere between $300 and $500 an hour for activities like forensic computer evaluation, security consulting, automobile repossession, and a few others specialties. I personally have made $10,000 in an hour on several occasions in 14 years doing bail fugitive recovery work, those types of paydays are few and far between. Overall I average almost $150 an hour while engaged in bail enforcement, not too bad by most people’s standards, though many investigators just don’t have the stomach for that type of work. It can be extremely dangerous, it is a very competitive field and you get paid only if you can complete the case.

Is private investigation dangerous work?

Obviously, there are some PI jobs that are more dangerous than others like collateral repossession or bounty hunting but, generally speaking, private investigation is not a dangerous job. We all have heard the stories of PIs getting caught while on surveillance by an irate cheating husband or being chased out of a yard at the business end of a shotgun while serving a subpoena. Most episodes of Magnum PI had Tom Selleck dodging bullets, too. Certainly, scary things can and do happen on rare occasions but like all war stories, the ones that seem to get a lot of attention play out more like fiction than reality. Safety is always at the forefront of every trained investigator’s mind.

What to Know When Hiring a Private Investigator

How do you know who’s the right private investigator for you. There is a difference between a good investigator and a bad one. The difference between the two is, they should work and operate their business professionally and charge the correct rates and not rip you off and get rubbish results. If you look on Google or directories you will see thousands of investigators who promise certain things, these sort of things they promise shouldn’t be promised as anything can happening when conducting surveillance, you don’t always get the luck you need and they may be a chance something will go wrong, this is what a good investigator will tell you.

If you really need to hire a private investigator, they are a few ways you can do this below is a short lift of ways to find a professional investigator;

  • Search Engines.
  • Yell
  • ABI (Association of British Investigators)
  • IPI (Institute of Professional Investigators)
  • WAPI (World Association of Private Investigators)
  • Referral from a friend.
  • Private Investigator Network

Some of the above options are trusted ways to find a reliable investigator. Personally the best way to find a professional investigator who will give you the best possible service and help is from a referral from somebody you know. This is because you know somebody who have dealt with an investigator and will be able to give you positive or negative feed back. If you don’t know anybody who has ever hired a private investigator make sure you make lists and ask questions.

Make sure you look for the following.

Below are some things you need to look out for when hiring an investigator:

Good Character

What’s the first impression you have from this person? What is his first concern, the money? (Your case should always come first and then the money after you have decided you want to go ahead and hire the private investigator) Can you trust him?

Private Investigators are not officially held to client confidentiality like a doctor is, a good investigator will honor this. They should never share or give out any information and keep everything private that is shared between the two of you, unless the investigator isn’t happy in what you are telling him or how the investigation is shaping up.

If the investigator is compromised they should never disclose the client’s name, this will protect you from any repercussions because of it.


When hiring an investigator you have to make sure they have some experience in the field of investigations you want to carry out. Have they got any educational background such as; Police or military? How long have they been working as a PI have they completed any training courses. Also what areas do they specialize in? It is also good to ask if they have dealt with any cases like yours before and what the end result was.

Has an office and doesn’t work out of his house.

It is always better to hire a PI who works out of a office, this is because it shows they are professional and it just looks more legit and professional. They are plenty of good quality investigators who work out of their spare bedroom, but have these got the man power to provide you with the service you require, he might only be a one man band who can only offer his services and not a team. Surveillance should never be carried out on their own, if somebody offers you to do this ask yourself this;

  • How will you follow him for long distances.
  • What if you get stopped at lights
  • What if they are more than one person to follow?
  • How can you react so quickly on your own?
  • Isn’t it dangerous to not have a small team?

It’s also a better way to communicate in later dates to maybe rearrange more possible surveillance and to get hold of them.

An orderly office can also be a window into the degree of his professionalism.

Clear on the price.

The investigator should give you a rough estimate of the cost after you have told him the brief details. Once he has all the information he should calculate the costs and inform you of them, if you agree to proceed the investigator shouldn’t exceed this amount unless you’re notified beforehand.

The First Meeting

Some investigators will want to see you for a meeting before the investigations start (this only really happens for high profile jobs such as; surveillance. Or even if it’s a private client paying cash) Some investigators i have spoken to in the past refuse to meet you and say its ‘unprofessional’ my first thoughts were, you’re not really in the location you are claiming and you properly won’t do the work you will sub-contract in out, so be careful of this make sure you know where the investigators are based, if you are unsure ask them for a meeting and see what their reactions are.

The investigator should also give you a brief description on how the surveillance will be undertaken and how you plan on doing it.

Final Thoughts

In the first call to a private investigator can be hard and emotional, but the best investigators will support you in all the ways you need along the way. Make sure you are 100% certain you need to uncover the information you are searching for and be prepared for the possible outcomes; some are not always what you want to hear.

What if you need to know what your partner is really getting up to, what if what you learn is heart breaking and upsetting, are you ready for this?

What if you want to find a lost relative? Maybe that person doesn’t want to have a relationship with you. How will you respond?

Or are you researching a business investment? What will you do if you find out that it’s fraudulent?

Remember that you can rely on a good private investigators. Besides handling the situation with professionalism. Also, remember that you’re making the first step toward empowering yourself in order to resolve issues that may be preventing you from living happily.

Women in Private Investigation: Work Part IV: Pros and Cons

What are the most commonly used techniques for delivering investigative services, and what are the pros and cons of using a female Private Investigator?

Remember that the Private Investigator does not have police powers and has to rely solely on wits, diligence, and sustainable, legal means to gather information. Otherwise, the PI will not be in business for long.

The three mainstays of the investigation business are surveillance, interview, and public record. Women are certainly capable of handling all three with ease.

While it might be harder for a good-looking woman to melt into the background than a man, all Private Investigators must learn this skill. Can you imagine doing a surveillance job wearing a bright red dress and stiletto heels? Just like male investigators, female investigators learn how to mute the colors and dress for blending in. They can also use tricks such as changing sweaters at intervals while tailing a suspect, so the suspect does not realize that he or she is being watched. Also, women tend to pick up on the styling that is predominant in various sections of town. Dressing too fancy in certain neighborhoods will call attention, and dressing too poorly in other sections will draw attention also. Adjusting makeup and accessories will also play a role.

Another aspect of surveillance that is often overlooked is the verbal skill of blending in. On the off chance that the Private Investigator is drawn into an unwanted conversation, the investigator has to know how to talk the talk and quickly disengage while not arousing any suspicions.

While studies show that women tend to be more aware of semantics and language and more articulate than men overall, women have to deal with nonverbal cues that will attract males, no matter how good their conversational skills. I’ve known women who would purposely pad their bodies to make them look a little pudgy to avoid unwanted male attention while tracking a suspect. This, in conjunction with using street vernacular, helps them. It might seem absurd, and it might not speak highly of societal realities for women, but women who want to remain in private investigative work seem to take these realities in stride and take pride in winning the information they are seeking.

When it comes to interviews, women tend to excel. People, whether male or female, tend to be comfortable confiding in their female friends. Linguist Deborah Tannen’s research showed that women tend to make more encouraging comments while listening, such as, “Uh, huh,” or “I see.” This often makes other women feel important and appreciated during conversations with a female Private Investigator. It often makes men feel that the woman listener agrees with him, even if the woman is only trying to communicate that she’s hearing what he said. In either case, women obviously have some advantages in interviewing, even if it’s only due to societal beliefs that women are not as threatening as men.

Private Investigators rely heavily on public records. This includes sales of real estate, birth and death certificates, licensing, and everything else imaginable. There are public records for just about every area of life. Women tend to be very patient when going through massive quantities of paperwork.

Women are often more open to alternative theories and sometimes this use of imagination results in finding the answer, even if it wasn’t the most likely one. This ability to not only find and catalog facts, but to put them together cohesively, adds to the effectiveness of female Private Investigators.

There is one more absolutely essential factor in investigations. That is the use of paid informants who will introduce an investigator to people who might have information as to what really happened. While risky, it is sometimes absolutely necessary to associate personally with a suspect who may have committed a crime and has every incentive to cover it up. Women, while perhaps more easily introduced to a crime circle because of their ability to seem less intrusive and more desirable, also take a huge risk. If they associate with a group like this for long, it becomes more dangerous with time. Therefore, they have to have some street smarts to compensate for the risk, and they have to be willing to get out as soon as they have the information they need. The need for plausible cover stories is very important here.

Paradoxically, there is no stereotype that fits everybody. You could easily find a male Private Investigator who comes across as very easy to talk to and very nonthreatening, while you could also find female Private Investigators who push the boundaries of assertiveness and could frighten a suspect into spilling the beans. The world is tending towards more equalized opportunity based on abilities rather than stereotypes.

Any activity in life has risks. The risks of private investigation are very real. However, our own experience with women investigators indicates that women can play vital and effective roles in investigative services, helping many people in the process.